Writing a Bootloader

What is a Bootloader?

A bootloader is a special program that is executed each time a bootable device is initialized by the computer during its power on or reset that will load the kernel image into the memory. This application is very close to hardware and to the architecture of the CPU. All x86 PCs boot in Real Mode. In this mode you have only 16-bit instructions. Our bootloader runs in Real Mode and our bootloader is a 16-bit program.

How this works?

When you switch on the PC the BIOS want to boot up an OS which must be found somewhere in hard disks, floppy disk, CDs, etc. The order in which BIOS searches an OS is user configurable. Next the BIOS reads the first 512 byte sector of the bootable disk. Usually a sector is 512 bytes in size. This is known as the Master Boot Record (MBR). BIOS simply loads the contents of the MBR into memory location “0x7c00” and jumps to that location to start executing whatever code is in the MBR. Our bootloader should be 512 bytes in size as well.

Continue reading

Advertisements

How to Turn Your Switch into a Snitch

Warning: The author takes no responsibility for any damage you may cause to your device. This post is meant for educational purposes and strictly NOT for malicious purposes.

This post is all about modifying your existing router firmware to perform cool things.

Hardware and Tools Needed:

For the router I am using a TP-Link MR3020. You may use whatever router you like but make sure you won’t brick your device after or while uploading the modified firmware. Also make sure your firmware can be reversed and dumped using the FMK (Firmware Mod Kit).

Download Firmware Mod Kit
Continue reading