Exploring the MS-DOS Stub

A long time ago when I got my first computer, I accidentally opened a 32-bit demo with a nice chiptune inside MS-DOS and it worked. I was surprised by how this happens. I was curious to find out how this works behind the scenes. Back in the time I was a little kid and had no clue about programming. This curiosity leads me to discover amazing things I never imagined.
First, let us have a look at the PE header. It starts with the MS-DOS header and contains a 16-bit MS-DOS executable (stub program).

(source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Portable_Executable_32_bit_Structure.png)

ZTE and TP-Link RomPager DoS


I think by now you know the security issues disclosed related to TP-Link routers. I’ve noticed that some ZTE and TP-Link routers have the same ADSL firmware which is “FwVer: HwVer:T14.F7_5.0”. I was curious to test the web application and I found out that the embedded server which is “RomPager” cannot handle fairly large POST requests.
Tested Routers: