A Basic RSA Encrypter

This is a small post about implementing a basic RSA encrypter to encrypt sections in an exe. We can use this to exchange exes with people. We will encrypt the section using the public key and the user has to use his private key to decrypt the exe. This can be applied in evading anti-viruses too.
I will use multiplication instead of an exponent. Since it would be easy to implement in few lines in assembly. However, this will allow breaking the private key easily hence the complete scheme is broken.

[latexpage]Enc = (m*e) \text{ mod } N&bg=FFFFFF&s=1[/latexpage]

$latex Dec = (c*d) \text{ mod } N$

The correctness of this scheme depends on the fact that

$latex Dec(Enc(m)) = (m*e*d) \text{ mod } N = m \text{ mod } N&bg=FFFFFF&s=1$

Introduction

This post is on exploiting a stack based buffer overflow in the HackSysExtremeVulnerableDriver.
There’s lot of background theory required to understand types of Windows drivers, developing drivers, debugging drivers, etc. I will only focus on developing the exploit while explaining some internal structures briefly. I would assume you have experience with assembly, C, debugging in the userland.
This driver is a kernel driver. A driver is typically used to get our code into the kernel. An unhandled exception will cause the famous BSOD. I will be using Windows 7 32-bit for this since it doesn’t support SMEP (Supervisor Mode Execution Prevention) or SMAP (Supervisor Mode Access Prevention). In simple words, I would say that when SMEP is enabled the CPU will generate a fault whenever the ring0 tries to execute code from a page marked with the user bit. Basically, due to this being not enabled, we can map our shellcode to steal the ‘System’ token. Check the Shellcode Analysis part for the analysis. Exploiting this vulnerability on a 64-bit system is different.
You can use the OSR Driver Loader to load the driver into the system.
If you want to debug the machine itself using windbg you can use VirtualKD or LiveKD

You can add a new serial connection using VirtualBox or VMware, so you can debug the guest system via windbg. I will be using a serial connection from VMware.
For kernel data structures refer to this. I have used it mostly to refer the structures.
After you have registered the driver you should see this in ‘msinfo32’.

If you check the loaded modules in the ‘System’ process you should see our kernel driver ‘HEVD.sys’.

Lab01-02 Analysis

This program is packed using UPX and can be easily unpacked.

At the start we see a call to ‘StartServiceCtrlDispatcher’ which is used to implement a service and the service control manager will call the service entry point provided. In here I have labeled the service entry point as ‘ServiceMain’. The name of the service created would be ‘Malservice’.

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Patching Windows Media Player

I’m writing this post on the request of @rudr4_sarkar. This is a very simple patch in which you can open multiple instances of wmplayer. It basically uses the ‘CreateMutexW’ API to create a mutex object with the string “Local\Microsoft_WMP_70_CheckForOtherInstanceMutex”.

The pseudo code would be something like this
[code language=”c”]
HANDLE hMutex = CreateMutex(NULL, FALSE, L"Local\Microsoft_WMP_70_CheckForOtherInstanceMutex");

}
[/code]
You just need to patch the ‘JNZ’ to a ‘JMP’ instruction, that will always jump to the good boy 🙂

Random CrackMe

This is an interesting crackme I found randomly. You can download it from here: http://www.mediafire.com/file/5r3a3uqsg1pbp4v/CrackMe1.zip

The algorithm uses the PID of the application for the serial key calculation. It also uses the ‘GetComputerName’ and ‘GetUserName’ win32 APIs in generating the serial key. The length of both results are used for the loops and each ascii value is added. These results are used in the final calculation in the serial key.
This graph is from the OllyGraph plugin.

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Data Packing

I was doing some random experiments using assembly and C. This is a simple example in packing 2 numbers inside a register in assembly. Let’s assume

$latex al < 2^{5}&bg=232225&fg=bbbbbb&s=4$
$latex bl < 2^{3}&bg=232225&fg=bbbbbb&s=4$

We want to store these 2 values inside the dl register. The dl register is of 8 bits, so 5 + 3 = 8 bits

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Assault Cube Trainer

I recently wanted to explore the world of game hacking, which involves some cool reverse engineering tricks. This is a trainer written in C++.

Simply uses WriteProcessMemory to write the values into memory of the game.

This interface loads an SQLite extension library from the named file.

[code language=”C”]
sqlite3 *db, /* Load the extension into this database connection */
const char *zFile, /* Name of the shared library containing extension */
const char *zProc, /* Entry point. Derived from zFile if 0 */
char **pzErrMsg /* Put error message here if not 0 */
);
[/code]

You can use this function to load a SQLite extension. However by default sqlite3_enable_load_extension() is turned off by default to prevent this in SQL injection attacks. You can read more from here https://www.sqlite.org/c3ref/enable_load_extension.html
The syntax would be
[code language=”sql”]
[/code]
However this path, const char *zFile can be a SMB share too.
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Making your Shellcode Undetectable using .NET

In the world of Windows you can execute shellcode using the VirtualAlloc and VirtualProtect Windows APIs. There are also few more APIs we can use to do the same task but different techniques involved.

VirtualProtect

This is how MSDN explains this:

Changes the protection on a region of committed pages in the virtual address space of the calling process.

[code language=”c”]
BOOL WINAPI VirtualProtect(
_In_ SIZE_T dwSize,
_In_ DWORD flNewProtect,
_Out_ PDWORD lpflOldProtect
);
[/code]
https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/aa366898(v=vs.85).aspx

Basically we can make our shellcode memory region executable and invoke it using this API. We use the PAGE_EXECUTE_READWRITE as the memory protection constant for the flNewProtect parameter to make our page RWX.

Here’s an example using C which I have implemented.
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Satana Malware Analysis

I haven’t done any malware analysis before and this would be my first post related to malware. I’m really interested but still quite a lot of things to learn 🙂 so I thought of starting off somewhere and this is the analysis of the ransomware named “Satana” by me. Obviously I hope you know who is Satan 👿

Samples:

Behavior Analysis

As soon as you run this the main executable will be deleted and a new sample will be created inside the %temp% folder.

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The following is the disassembly corresponding to this event.

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